Apple is organized by functional specialties rather than business units — rare for a company our size. We’re experts leading experts: hardware experts lead hardware, software experts lead software, and design experts lead design. This differs from most other large companies, where general managers oversee managers. Apple is Apple because those with the most expertise in an area of work have decision rights for that area.
Leaders at Apple combine their expertise with two other important characteristics: immersion in the details and a willingness to collaboratively debate during collective decision-making. For people at every level here, it can be liberating — even exhilarating — to work with experts who offer relevant guidance and mentoring. This approach to leadership is a commitment to collaboration that leads to innovation.